Pollution Prevention Guides for
Auto Body Shops
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Carbon Monoxide (CO) -
A colorless and odorless gas that is formed during incomplete combustion.
Potential sources of CO include cigarette smoke, fossil fuel combustion,
and automobile exhaust.
Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) - Chemicals used for refrigeration, air conditioning,
aerosol sprays, and plastics. CFCs released into the atmosphere migrate
high above the earth where they break down to form chlorine gas. Chlorine
gas can destroy the ozone layer.
Compost - The
controlled microbial decomposition of organic matter, such as yard waste
and food scraps, in the presence of oxygen into a humus- or soil-like
Energy - The ability
to do work. Electricity is a form of energy that is transferred by moving
EPA Identification Number - A 12-digit code used to track hazardous waste from the
point of generation to the disposal facility. A business must obtain this
number if their hazardous waste is sent to a treatment, storage, and
disposal (TSD) facility and they are a Small or Large Generator.
Flash Point - Minimum
liquid temperature at which a spark or flame causes an instantaneous flash
in the vapor space above the liquid.
Groundwater - Water
that occurs beneath the surface of the earth, unsaturated soil, or the
interstices of bedrock.
Halogenated Solvent -
Chemicals, such as chlorine, bromine, fluorine, astatine, and iodine, that
contain one or more of the halogen elements. Most halogenated solvents
contain chlorine and are referred to as chlorinated solvents. Halogenated
solvents are usually very toxic to humans and the environment if
improperly handled or disposed of.
Hazardous Air Pollutants (HAPs) - Chemicals that cause adverse health effects including
cancer, birth defects, nervous system damage, and possibly death.
Potential sources of HAPs may include some printers, drycleaners, and
Hazardous Material - A material that because of its quantity, concentration,
or physical, chemical, or infectious characteristics, may pose a
threat to human health and the environment.
Hazardous Waste - A
waste or combination of wastes that, because of its quantity,
concentration or physical, chemical, or infectious characteristics,
may pose a threat to human health and the environment.
Heavy Metals -
Hazardous elements, including mercury and lead, which may be found in
the waste stream as part of discarded items such as batteries and
Incineration - The
controlled burning of municipal solid waste to reduce volume and, in
some cases, to recover energy.
Landfill - The
disposal of solid waste at engineered facilities in a series of
compacted layers on land and the daily covering of the waste with
soil. Fill areas are managed in such a way as to prevent nuisances or
public health hazards.
Leachate - A
liquid that has entered, passed through, or emerged from solid waste.
Lumen - The
quantitative measure of a lampsís brightness. A 75 Watt incandescent
bulb has 1,200 lumens, whereas a 18 Watt compact fluorescent bulb has
Manifest - The
shipping document, originated and signed by the generator, that is used to
identify the hazardous waste, its quantity, origin, and destination.
Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS) - Document produced by the manufacturer that provides a
variety of information about a product, such as its flash point,
ingredients, and precautions for safe handling and use. All hazardous
chemical manufacturers and distributors are required by the
Occupational Safety and Health Administration to provide MSDSs.
Maximum Achievable Control Technology (MACT) - Emissions limitations based on the best demonstrated
control technology or practices. This is a very high level of pollution
Nonpoint Source (NPS) - Pollution that originates from precipitation or irrigation
flowing through the soil, carrying pollutants to surface water or
groundwater. NPS pollution is a major contributor to declining water
quality in Montana.
Ozone - A gas
consisting of three oxygen atoms. High concentrations of
naturally-occurring ozone gas are found high above the earthís
surface. This ozone layer shields the earth against harmful ultraviolet
rays from the sun.
Point Source (PS) -
Pollution that comes from a discernible, confined, or discrete
conveyance such as a pipe, ditch, channel, tunnel, well, or container.
Pollution Prevention (Source Reduction) - The design, manufacture, purchase, or use of materials
to reduce the amount or toxicity of waste.
Post-Consumer Recycling - The reuse of
materials generated from residential and commercial waste, excluding
recycling of material from industrial processes that has not reached the
consumer, such as glass broken in the manufacturing process.
Power - The rate at
which energy is, or could be, transferred. Power is typically metered in
Solid Waste Management Facility - A facility, such as a container site, transfer station, or
landfill, designed to temporarily or permanently contain solid waste.
Recycle - The
process by which materials are collected, reprocessed or
remanufactured, and reused.
Reuse - The use of
a material more than once in its same form, either for the same
purpose or for a different purpose.
Run-off - Any
rainwater, leachate, or other liquid that drains over the land from
any part of a facility.
Run-on - Any
rainwater, leachate, or other liquid that drains over the land onto
any part of a facility.
Scrubbers - Pollution
control devices used in industry to remove aerosols and waste gases
through the use of water, activated charcoal, or filters.
Septic System - A
buried tank where wastes are collected from a house or business.
Lighter particles float to the surface, heavy particles sink to the
bottom, and the remaining liquid flows through a pipe system to a
drainfield in the soil. Some solids are digested by bacteria; the rest
must be pumped out.
Smog - A mixture
of pollutants, primarily ground-level ozone (product of chemical
reactions in the air involving volatile organic compounds,
nitrogen oxides, and sunlight). Smog can harm humans and the
environment and can cause poor visibility.
Solid Waste - All
putrescible and non-putrescible wastes, including garbage, rubbish,
sludge from sewage treatment plants, dead animals, appliances,
construction and demolition debris, and wood waste.
Source Reduction (Pollution Prevention) - The design, manufacture, purchase, or use of
materials to reduce the amount or toxicity of waste.
Storage - The
actual or intended containment of wastes, either on a temporary basis
or for a period of years.
Sump - Subsurface
chamber, usually beneath a floor drain, designed to capture the solids
in shop wastewater.
- A measure of how much paint actually coats a surface compared to how
much is applied.
Transporter - A
person engaged in the off-site transportation of hazardous waste by
air, rail, highway, or water.
Treatment - A
method, technique, or process, including neutralization, designed to
change the physical, chemical, or biological character or composition
of any hazardous waste to neutralize the waste or render it
non-hazardous, safer for transport, amenable for recovery, amenable
for storage, or reduced in volume.
Treatment, Storage, and Disposal (TSD) Facility - See individual definitions above.
Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) - Organic compounds that if released into the atmosphere
can form ozone in the presence of heat and sunlight. VOCs
include gasoline fumes, benzene, solvents such as toluene and xylene,
and tetrachloroethylene. Many VOCs are also HAPs (for example
benzene, causes cancer).
Waste Stream - A term
describing the total flow of solid waste from homes, businesses, and
institutions that must be recycled, incinerated, or disposed of in
Wastewater Disposal - The disposition of treated wastewater to a receiving
water, either groundwater or surface water.
Wastewater Treatment - Inactivation of disease-causing organisms and
decomposition of constituents of the wastewater so that it will not
cause harm in the receiving water.
Water Conservation - Activities designed to reduce the demand for water,
improve efficiency in use, and reduce the waste of water.
Watt - A measure of
how much electric energy is flowing, or can flow, through a particular
electrical device or circuit in one hour.
Montana State University Extension Service
Pollution Prevention Program Taylor Hall Bozeman, Montana 59717
The United States Environmental Protection Agency
(Glossary to accompany a fact sheet series of 18)
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