back to: Table of
Construction and demolition (C&D) materials may contain
special wastes that are, or may soon be, subject to special state and
federal regulations. Special wastes include asbestos, fluorescent and
high-intensity discharge (HID) lamps, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs),
Asbestos refers to a group of naturally-occurring fibrous minerals that
separate into very fine fibers. Asbestos fibers are strong,
heat-resistant, and very durable. Asbestos is considered most dangerous
when it is crushed, crumbled, or disturbed (occurs especially during
remodeling or demolition) because it can release tiny fibers into the air.
These fibers remain suspended in the air for a long time and can easily
penetrate body tissue after being inhaled or ingested. Inhalation of
asbestos fibers can lead to asbestosis (scarring of the lungs),
mesothelioma (cancer), and lung cancer.
Because of these serious health risks, building materials containing
asbestos must be disposed of according to strict state and federal
regulations, which include disposal only in landfills certified by DEQ to
accept asbestos waste. Contractors are liable for failure to follow
regulations, procedures, and permitting requirements for containing,
hauling, disposing, and keeping records of asbestos waste.
Great care is needed to protect air quality while working with
asbestos-containing materials. Do not cut, scrape, tear, sand, saw, or
drill asbestos-containing materials unless absolutely necessary.
- Asbestos Hazard Emergency Response Act (AHERA).
- Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 Includes federal requirements on
handling asbestos found in commercial buildings, schools (K-12), and
General Information About Asbestos
- The primary concern about asbestos-containing material is when it
exists in friable form. Friable means that the material can be
crumbled or crushed with hand pressure and is therefore likely to emit
- Asbestos-containing material existing in nonfriable form and in good
(undamaged) condition should present no problems as long as it is left
alone and maintained in good condition.
- Basic precautions when dealing with asbestos:
- Do not disturb the material. If the asbestos is in poor
condition, do not allow it to be released into the air (for
example, by walking through the area or pushing it aside to work
in the area).
- If asbestos-containing materials are in poor condition and you
need to work in the area, ask a professional before disturbing the
- Asbestos-containing material is usually found in:
- Surfacing material sprayed or troweled on ceilings and walls
- Insulation around pipes, boilers, ducts, and tanks
- Miscellaneous materials such as wallboard or floor tiles
- Important banning dates of asbestos-containing materials:
- 1973 for asbestos spray-applied insulating materials
- 1976 for asbestos pre-molded insulation (if friable)
- 1978 for asbestos spray-applied decorative materials
- It is extremely difficult to determine which homes might have
asbestos-containing materials. These materials have been available
since World War II, and asbestos has even been unknowingly reapplied
as recently as the late 1980s.
- A trained Asbestos Inspector is the best person to locate
asbestos-containing materials in a building (see Worker Training,
Certification, and Fees in this section for more information). This
person also knows where to sample for asbestos.
Following are examples of places in a house where asbestos might be
- Exterior Surfaces - exterior walls and closed decks built with a
fire retardant sheeting that looks like gray cardboard; cement
asbestos board (usually light gray in color) used as sheets for
straight and lap siding, or shaped to substitute for wood shingles;
roof felt or window putty.
- Wall and Ceiling Insulation - loose blown-in and batt insulation
(especially in homes built or remodeled between 1930 and 1950) found
where interior spaces need to be protected from outside temperatures
(such as outside walls and floor or roof/attic spaces between
structural joists and rafters).
- Floor Coverings - sheet vinyl (including the backing or underlayment),
vinyl tile, and vinyl adhesive.
- Furnaces, Boilers, Heaters, and Piping - insulation blankets (the
outside covering or shell), door gaskets, duct insulation, and tape at
duct connections of furnaces and boilers; furnaces with
asbestos-containing insulation and cement (the material is white or
gray in color and resembles plaster) generally installed in older
homes between 1920 and 1972; on and inside furnace ducts; insulation
or asbestos paper (which looks like corrugated cardboard) around steam
and water pipes, particularly at elbows, tees, and valves; cement
sheets, millboard, and paper frequently used as thermal insulation for
protection of floors and walls around woodstoves.
- Interior Surfaces - sprayed-on or troweled-on surface material on
wall and ceiling surfaces; acoustical tiles, textured paint, or heat
- Electrical Equipment - materials in older lamp socket collars,
electric switch and receptacle boxes, liners for recessed lighting,
backing for switchboard panels, fuse boxes, and old-fashioned
"knob & tube" wiring.
- Built-in Equipment - oven or dishwasher (in cabinet) units were
often wrapped in insulation blankets or sheets until the mid-1970s;
water heaters, range hoods, or clothes dryers.
- Appliances - parts with asbestos-containing materials in
refrigerators, freezers, portable dishwashers, or ovens.
The above list does not include every material or place in a house that
may contain asbestos. More than 3,000 building products contain asbestos.
The age of the building is not a valid way to determine the presence of
asbestos. Always have suspicious material tested.
Contractors can be subject to civil penalties up to $10,000 for
violating asbestos regulations or causing contamination. Because the
public has become increasingly aware of the danger from asbestos,
contractors who do not take required precautions may also be subject to
Since November 1992, the EPA has required an inspection by an
EPA-certified inspector prior to any remodeling, renovation, restoration,
or demolition of public and commercial buildings. In addition, an asbestos
removal plan must be developed by an Asbestos Hazard Emergency Response
Act (AHERA) designer. Work in schools (K-12) and public buildings
must meet additional requirements outlined by EPA under the federal AHERA.
For more information, contact a regional EPA office .
Federal Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA)
regulations governing asbestos promote worker safety and include safe work
practices, worker exposure limits, labeling, employee training, protective
clothing and respirators, medical surveillance, monitoring and record
keeping. For more information, contact a local OSHA office:
Contractors are responsible for determining whether a substance contains
asbestos. Unfortunately, the asbestos fibers that can cause health
problems are much too small to be seen without a powerful microscope. The
only way to be sure whether a substance contains asbestos is to have the
It is wise to hire a consulting firm or a trained asbestos inspector to
take the sample and analyze it. If you choose to sample the material
yourself, carefully follow these steps:
- Ask the analytical lab how large a sample is required.
- Make sure employees wear a High Efficiency Particulate Air (HEPA)
filter respirator and disposal gloves.
- Do not disturb the material any more than is required to take the
- Wet the material using a fine water mist prior to taking the sample.
- Penetrate the depth of the dampened material with a clean sample
container, such as a 35mm film canister, a small glass, or a plastic
- Tightly seal the container.
- Use a damp paper towel to clean up any material that spilled outside
of the container.
- Label the container, indicating when and where the sample was taken.
- Take the sample to an analytical laboratory.
- Repair the sample location with caulk.
If asbestos is present, contractors must follow EPA, state
environmental agency, and OSHA regulations. If you do not test a material,
you should proceed as if the material contains asbestos. Failure to
realize that a substance contains asbestos does not absolve contractors
Best Pollution Prevention Practices
- Proper management of materials containing asbestos.
- Test for asbestos using a certified consultant or follow the
procedures listed above.
- Investigate and follow state requirements for handling, and
local Class II landfill requirements for disposing of,
- Only contract with certified asbestos abatement contractors.
- Make proper notifications prior to handling, removing, or
Worker Training, Certification, and Fees
Depending on regulations in your state the following issues may apply
- Contractor/Worker Licensing
- Notification of Asbestos Abatement
- Required Work Practices and Procedures
- Asbestos Disposal and Record Keeping
- Disposal of asbestos must follow regulatory requirements.
- Required methods of containing asbestos waste
- Specific procedures for hauling waste
- Disposal in a landfill authorized to accept asbestos waste
- Formal record keeping of asbestos waste disposal
FLUORESCENT AND HID LAMPS
Fluorescent and high-intensity discharge (HID) lamps--such as metal
halide and mercury vapor lamps--contain mercury, cadmium, and antimony.
Incandescent light bulbs contain lead. Exposure to small amounts of these
substances can cause serious human health problems. Under federal
law, mercury-containing lamps may be considered a hazardous waste and must
be managed accordingly.
Electric Lamps as Universal Wastes
Regulations regard spent electric lamps as Universal Waste. Universal
Waste is a term describing wastes that fall under reduced regulations if
they are recycled. Refer to Section 8-Hazardous Wastes for a more detailed
description about the management of Universal Wastes.
Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP)
To determine whether a mercury-containing lamp is a hazardous waste,
you could use a test known as the Toxicity Characteristic Leaching
Procedure (TCLP). The TCLP test:
- Identifies whether a waste is hazardous and must be managed as
- Attempts to replicate the conditions in a municipal landfill to
detect a contaminant's (metal or organic compound) concentration in
water that might leach from the landfill
- Analyzes the leachate after an acidic solution is passed through a
sample of the waste
The waste is determined to be TCLP toxic if the concentration of the
contaminant is greater than the designated standard for that substance. If
the substance fails the TCLP test, it is considered a characteristic
hazardous waste. For more information about testing methods, contact the
DEQ Permitting & Compliance Division at (406) 444-3490.
Even in the absence of disposal regulations, recycling is an
environmentally responsible way to manage spent lamps. Recycling separates
toxic substances such as mercury from the glass, aluminum, and other lamp
components that can be reused. It costs only 10 cents per foot to recycle
a fluorescent lamp. Fluorescent and HID lamps can be recycled regardless
of whether the lamp fails the TCLP test.
Some precautions to take for storing spent lamps:
- Do not break or crush lamps--mercury may be released.
- If storing lamps for recycling facilities, avoid taping lamps
- If lamps are accidentally broken, store them in a sealed container.
If your construction or demolition activities involve removal and
disposal of fluorescent or HID lamps, you should monitor changing
- Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA)
- 40 CFR 273 Universal Waste Rule. Provides guidelines for managing
Best Pollution Prevention Practices
- Proper management of fluorescent and HID wastes.
- Follow state and local landfill requirements for handling and
disposing of lamps.
- Recycle lamps through a licensed and permitted recycling facility.
- If you can't recycle your mercury-containing lamp wastes, and you
generate more than five lamps at a time, follow hazardous waste
POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYLS (PCBs)
You are most likely to encounter polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs)
during remodeling or renovation. PCBs were widely used before 1979 as
dielectric fluid to insulate electrical equipment such as capacitors,
transformers, switches, and voltage regulators, and for fluorescent lamp
ballasts. PCBs are considered hazardous because studies have shown them to
cause cancer as well as reproductive and developmental defects in
laboratory animals. Handling and disposal of materials containing PCBs is
regulated by federal and state law.
Before disposing of fluorescent ballasts, you should determine if they
contain PCBs. Look to see if the ballast carries a "No PCBs"
label. If it does, then your ballast does not contain PCBs and you
don't have to worry about most of the other information in this section.
See the content in this section under Disposal of PCB Ballasts and
Recycling Ballasts for disposal and recycling options.
General EPA Information About PCBs
In the fall of 1993, the EPA received data from several sources
indicating that PCBs were found in the insulating (potting) compounds of
fluorescent light ballasts generally manufactured prior to 1978 (all
ballasts manufactured through approximately 1978 contain PCBs and some
manufactured after 1978 contain PCBs as well). Ballasts that contain
potting compounds that have 50 ppm or more PCBs (which includes any
PCB-containing ballast you will encounter) are termed PCB Articles. PCB
Articles must be stored, transported, and disposed of in accordance with
Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) regulations. Contact an EPA Regional
or State Operations Office.
To avoid incurring liability from improperly managed ballasts that have
PCB-contaminated potting compounds, the EPA recommends that untested
ballasts or ballasts that do not carry a "No PCBs" label should
be managed as PCB waste.
CERCLA Reporting Requirements
PCB is defined as a hazardous substance under CERCLA (Superfund).
CERCLA lists one pound as the reportable quantity for PCBs when they are
disposed of in a landfill. Each small capacitor in a fluorescent light
ballast contains at least 0.1 pounds of pure PCB. So if you are disposing
of 10 or more light ballasts, you are subject to CERCLA reporting
requirements. Reporting places you on a list of potential Primary
Responsible Parties in any subsequent Superfund cleanup of the landfill.
For this reason, you can avoid liability by managing ballasts in an
alternative manner such as recycling.
Two terms you may often come upon when dealing with PCBs:
- Small capacitor - the capacitor contained in the ballast has less
than three pounds of dielectric fluid
- Large capacitor - the capacitor contained in the ballast has more
than three pounds of dielectric fluid
PCB Testing Labs
You can also look for PCB testing labs in the Yellow Pages under
Disposal of PCB Ballasts
EPA has established a policy that recommends against disposing of
individual small PCB capacitors, small PCB capacitors contained in
fluorescent light ballasts, or untested fluorescent light ballast potting
compounds as municipal solid waste. Instead, the EPA encourages you to
dispose of non-leaking fluorescent light ballasts and small PCB capacitors
at a TSCA-approved facility. These facilities include recyclers,
landfills, and incinerators that have EPA approvals to dispose of
Disposal procedures for PCB ballasts depends on your particular
- The following types of ballasts may be disposed of at a TSCA-approved
recycler, landfill, or incinerator (they may also be disposed of at a
licensed Class II municipal landfill that agrees to accept them,
although EPA does not recommend this disposal method):
- All ballasts without PCBs
- Ballasts that contain PCBs, but are not leaking and have less
than three pounds of dielectric fluid (which should always be the
- If the capacitors in your ballasts are leaking, you must send them
to an EPA-approved PCB incinerator. Recycling is not an option.
- Whether your ballasts are leaking or not, you can transport them
yourself or you can hire a certified hauler. If you transport the
ballasts yourself, contact the disposal facility first to make sure
your ballasts will be accepted.
Ballasts in a lighting system can be punctured or damaged, exposing an
oily, tar-like substance (the potting compound). If the leaking ballast is
identified as containing PCBs, the ballast and all materials that come in
contact with it are fully regulated and are subject to federal PCB
Should you encounter a leaking ballast containing PCBs, follow these
- Immediately (within 24 hours) follow detailed spill procedures
outlined in 40 CFR, Part 761, Subpart G.
- Leaking ballasts must be disposed of in an EPA-approved PCB
- You can transport the leaking ballasts yourself or you can hire a
certified hauler. If you transport the ballasts yourself, contact the
incinerator first to make sure your ballasts will be accepted. If you
hire a certified hauler, the leaking ballasts must be manifested for
shipment. Some haulers are authorized as PCB commercial storers and
may be used to arrange for the disposal of ballasts containing
Used, nonleaking ballasts may be recycled even if they contain PCBs.
Recycling reclaims valuable metals, reduces the volume of solid waste sent
to landfills, and prevents toxic substances from being burned in an
incinerator or buried in a landfill.
- Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA)
- Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability
- 40 CFR Part 761 Federal regulations governing disposal and liability
from improper disposal of PCB-containing materials.
Best Pollution Prevention Practices
- Safe management of waste contaminated with PCBs.
- Investigate and follow state and local requirements for
handling and disposing of ballasts containing PCBs.
- Recycle PCB-containing ballasts through a licensed and
permitted recycling facility.
- If you don't recycle your PCB-containing ballasts, follow
hazardous waste disposal practices.
According to the EPA, approximately three-quarters of the nation's
houses built before 1978 (approximately 64 million dwellings) contain some
lead-based paint (LBP), although lead-based paint is not used in new
residential construction. Lead is also a common component in C&D
debris, found in roofs, cornices, tank linings, and electrical conduits.
These materials may leach lead into the environment if not properly
managed. Soft solder, an alloy of lead and tin, is used in plumbing for
soldering joints. Soft solder has been banned from many uses in the United
An estimated one in eleven American children have high lead levels in
their blood. The Centers for Disease Control (CDC) describes lead
poisoning as the most significant, preventable health problem affecting
children today. Consumers are suing contractors for lead contamination
that occurs during demolition and renovation. You can protect yourself by
becoming aware of the hazards of lead poisoning, managing lead-containing
demolition debris appropriately, and by examining your liability carefully
(see Section 2-Contractor Liability).
Lead Paint and Real Estate (Title X)
In 1992, Congress passed the Residential Lead-Based Paint Hazard Reduction
Act, also known as Title X, to inform the public about the risks of
exposure to lead. Under Section 1018 of this law, HUD and the EPA require
the disclosure of information on lead-based paint hazards before housing
units built before 1978 can be sold or leased (1978 was the year the
Consumer Product Safety Commission banned the sale or distribution of
lead-based paint for residential use).
Owners of residential property regardless of the number of units) built
before 1978 must:
- Disclose information to renters or buyers about known lead-based
paint and lead-based paint hazards and provide any available reports
on lead in the dwelling.
- Give renters or buyers the EPA pamphlet Protect Your Family from
Lead in Your Home.
- Include proper warning, notification, and disclosure language in
contracts and leasing agreements.
- Give buyers a 10-day period to test the dwelling for lead.
- Retain signed acknowledgments for three years as proof of
- Title X 1992 Residential Lead-Based Paint Hazard Reduction Act Real
estate notification and disclosure rule regarding most houses built
Facts About Lead
Below is some general information about lead.
- The major source of lead in the home is from contaminated dust (old
paint, contaminated soil, and leaded gasoline/auto exhaust residues).
- Other sources of lead include dust from remodeling and lead in the
water from solder or fixtures.
- Lead-based paint is only a hazard if the paint is damaged (peeling,
cracking, etc.). The presence of the paint itself is not necessarily a
hazard. Paint in good condition poses little threat to health if left
- There is not a completely safe, do-it-yourself way to remove
- Lead-based paint is most commonly found in areas where high
durability is needed: windows, doors, door frames, woodwork, and
- Research has shown that small doses of lead, once thought to be
harmless, can cause serious damage to the human body.
- Young children are at the greatest risk for lead poisoning, which
can cause delayed development, reading and learning problems, lowered
IQ, hyperactivity, and discipline problems. Larger doses of lead can
cause high blood pressure, anemia, and kidney disorders (even in
Most buildings constructed before 1960 contain heavily leaded paint.
Buildings constructed as late as 1978 may also contain lead paint.
Lead pipe and solder can be found in all but the most recently constructed
Operations that generate lead dust and fumes include:
- Using flame-torch cutting or welding or using heat guns on lead
painted surfaces during repair, reconstruction, dismantling,
demolition, or abatement work.
- Abrasive blasting of bridges and other structures containing
- Sanding, scraping, or grinding lead painted surfaces during repair,
reconstruction, dismantling, demolition, or abatement work.
- Maintaining exhaust duct work.
OSHA and EPA Regulations
In June 1993, OSHA developed new lead exposure standards for workers
who handle materials containing lead. The standards cover safe work
practices, worker exposure limits, labeling, employee training, protective
clothing and respirators, medical surveillance, monitoring, and record
keeping. OSHA publishes the handbook Lead in Construction that describes
your responsibilities in these areas. For a copy of the handbook or for
more information, contact either the OSHA.
OSHA Worker Protection Program
Employers of construction workers are responsible for the development
and implementation of a worker protection program in accordance with OSHA
regulations found in 29 CFR, Parts 1926.20 and 1926.62 (e). This program
is essential for minimizing worker risk of lead exposure. The most
effective way to protect workers and minimize the generation of hazardous
air emissions and waste is through the use of safe work practices and
engineering controls. Engineering controls reduce employee exposure in the
workplace either by removing or isolating the hazard or isolating the
worker from exposure through the use of technology.
- 29 CFR 1910.133 Federal regulations on eye and face protection.
- 29 CFR 1910.134 Federal regulations on respiratory protection.
- 29 CFR, 1926.20 and 1926.62 Federal regulations on lead exposure for
EPA Training Certification Requirements
The EPA is in the process of adopting lead training certification
requirements for lead inspectors, workers, and abatement contractors and
supervisors. The laws and regulations for this action were promulgated in
August 1996. At that time, states and tribes had two years to seek
authorization to manage the program. By the fall of 1998, EPA will manage
the program in areas that do not have state/tribal programs, which
Best Pollution Prevention Practices
- Minimize worker exposure to lead.
- Develop a worker protection program that limits employee
exposure to lead. OSHA's new interim final standards for
construction workers is 50 micrograms of lead per cubic meter
of air averaged over an 8-hour workday. Minimal plan elements
- Identifying sources of exposure
- Hazard determination, including exposure assessment
- Exposure monitoring
- Protective clothing, respiratory protection, and
- Select appropriate respiratory devices and monitor
- Determine the effectiveness of work practices in controlling
- Determine the need for engineering controls.
- Recognize the need for modifying exposure and control
practices, including the need for additional engineering
- Determine the need for medical monitoring.
Best Pollution Prevention Practices
- Minimize the generation of lead-containing wastes.
Engineering and Work Practice Controls
- Do not sand, dry scrape, or burn lead-based paint (this
generates contaminated dust).
- Increase the length of cutting torches to increase the
worker's distance from the contamination.
- Reduce lead exposure during torch cutting by stripping paint
away from the area to be cut.
- Substitute blasting techniques that are less dusty than
- (1) wet blasting using high pressure water with or without
abrasive media (be aware that control and disposal of water
can be a problem)
- (2) vacuum blasting where a vacuum hood for material removal
is positioned around the exterior of the blasting nozzle
- Use flameless heat guns to remove lead-based paints in
residential housing units. Heat guns should have
electronically controlled temperature settings to allow usage
below the HUD limit of 1,100EF.
Heat guns should be equipped with various nozzles to cover all
- Remove and replace interior woodwork and entire window
systems rather than scraping.
- Cover lead-based paint surfaces with materials such as vinyl
wallpaper, plaster, or wallboard.
- Use coatings that do not contain lead.
- Use chemical strippers to soften and remove lead-based paint
(Caution: many chemical strippers, such as methylene chloride,
are toxic or release toxic by-products when subjected to high
- Use exhaust ventilation that is equipped with a dust
collection system to capture lead dust and fumes at the point
- Use wet cleaning methods (damp mopping or dusting) to reduce
the spread of dust.
- Use vacuum equipment with high-efficiency particulate
- Use non-lead solder.
- Recycle lead pipe removed from demolition jobs (do not
Respiratory Protection, Protective Clothing, and Equipment
- Establish a respiratory protection program in accordance
with the OSHA standard in 29 CFR 1910.134. Provide an
appropriate, clean respirator that has been approved by the
Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA) and the National
Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH).
- Provide employees with dry, protective work clothing and
equipment which include coveralls or full-body work clothing;
gloves, hats, and shoes or disposable coverlets; and face
shields, vented goggles, or other appropriate protective
equipment that complies with 29 CFR 1910.133. Also provide
appropriate changing and hygiene facilities.
- Keep the work site clean. Use either a vacuum with a HEPA
filter or a wet cleaning method when removing lead dust. Never
use regular vacuums or compressed air for cleaning.
- Clean up thoroughly. Mop with a solution of 5% trisodium
phosphate (TSP) in warm water.
- Wash hands and face before eating, drinking, smoking, or
- Keep all food away from work areas. Eat, drink, or smoke in
areas outside the work site.
- Shower and change into clean clothes, including shoes,
before leaving the work site so that no lead contamination is
If the material you are examining for lead contamination fails the
TCLP test, it must be considered a hazardous waste and managed accordingly
(see Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) in this section).
The entire site should then be examined for further lead contamination.
Discuss options for treatment or disposal with your client as soon as the
contamination is discovered. One option is to haul the contaminated
material to a treatment, storage, or disposal (TSD) facility.
Disposal of Lead-Based Paint Waste
Disposal of lead-based paint waste is subject to the regulations found
in the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Subtitle C.
Normally, household wastes are excluded from the RCRA requirements.
However, under the EPA's current reading (May 1994) of the household waste
exemption, lead-based paint is not similar to the waste typically
generated by a household. Therefore, lead-based paint waste generated from
construction, demolition, or renovation activities is not exempt from RCRA
Subtitle C and must be managed as hazardous waste (see Section 8-Hazardous
On the other hand, if your lead-based paint waste is generated in small
enough quantities (less than 220 pounds of hazardous waste per month) to
meet the requirements of a conditionally exempt generator (CEG), you may
have to comply with fewer regulations (see Section 8-Hazardous Wastes for
information about CEG requirements).
The following documents are available from EPA offices:
- Lead Poisoning and Your Children. EPA 800-B-92-002, Feb 1995
- Protect Your Family From Lead in Your Home. EPA 747-K-94-001, May
- Lead in Drinking Water in Schools and Non-residential Buildings. EPA
812-B-94-002, April 1994
- Guidance on Residential Lead-based Paint, Lead-contaminated Dust,
and Lead-contaminated Soil. July 1994
- Reducing Lead Hazards When Remodeling Your Home. EPA 747-R-94-002,
- EPA and HUD Real Estate Notification and Disclosure Rule. EPA
747-F-96-001, March 1996
- Understanding Title X, A Practical Guide to the Residential
Lead-Based Paint Hazard Reduction Act of 1992. Alliance to End
Childhood Lead Poisoning