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Clean Snowmobiles: Complete List of Reference Documents
Table of Contents
Background and Overview
Operations
Reasons for Change
Preventing Pollution
Where To Go for Help
Acknowledgements
Complete List of Links

Browse by Keyword
Snowmobiles

Browse by Resource Type
Article/report (28) / Fact sheet/checklist (3) / Manual/handbook/curriculum (1) / Web site (8)

NOTE: [PDF] links require Acrobat Reader from Adobe.


- Article/report -    Top of Page

Carbon Monoxide Monitoring in West Yellowstone, Montana, 1998-2001 [PDF]
Abstract: This report was prepared as part of Montana's participation in the process of completing the Supplemental Enviromental Impact Statement on Winter Use Plans for the Yellowstone/Teton area, and describes results of CO2 monitoring.
Source: Montana Department of Environmental Quality
URL: http://deq.mt.gov/CleanSnowmobile/publications/Reports/Carbo
nMonoxideMonitoringInWY98_01.pdf

Comparison of Carbon Monoxide Emissions from Snowcoaches, 1997 and 2001 Snowmobiles and 2001 Clean Snowmobile Challenge New Technology Applications [PDF]
Abstract: Information on emissions event at Snowmobile Challenge 2001.
Source: Department of Environmental Quality
URL: http://deq.mt.gov/cleansnowmobile/solutions/challenge/pdf/ca
inhaines.pdf

Creating a Cleaner Snowmobile
Abstract: Site to purchase technical snowmobiling paper.
Source: Society of Automotive Engineers
URL: http://papers.sae.org/2000-01-2553/

Development and Validation of a Snowmobile Emission Test Procedure
Abstract: Site to purchase this technical paper on snowmobiling.
Source: Society of Automotive Engineers
URL: http://papers.sae.org/982017/

Do Ethanol-Blended Fuels Reduce Snowmobile Tailpipe Emissions
Abstract: Easy to understand summary of research that documents a reduction in carbon monoxide emissions from snowmobiles with the use of ethanol blended fuels.
Source: Western Regional Biomass Energy Program
URL: http://www.deq.mt.gov/cleansnowmobile/Solutions/Fuels/oxygen
ated.mcpx

Effects of Snowmobile Use on Snowpack Chemistry in Yellowstone National Park, 1998 [PDF]
Abstract: An investigation of the relation between snowmobile use and snowpack chemistry.
Source: U.S. Geological Survey
URL: http://pubs.usgs.gov/wri/wri994148/pdf/wrir99-4148.pdf

Final Rule Snowmobiles NPS 2002
Abstract: The final EPA regulation from 2002, published by the NPS.
Source: National Park Service
URL: http://www.propertyrightsresearch.org/final_rule_snowmobiles
_nps.htm

Final Snowmobile Reguations for Yellowstone and Grand Teton National Parks Published in Federal Register
Abstract: Announcement of phase out of recreational snowmobiling in Yellowstone National Park and most of Grand Teton National Park.
Source: National Park Service
URL: http://data2.itc.nps.gov/release/Detail.cfm?ID=110

Final Winter Use Rule For Grand Teton and Yellowstone Published
Abstract: The final rule implements a decision that strikes a balance between phasing out all snowmobile use and allowing for unlimited snowmobile use of the parks.
Source: National Park Service
URL: http://home.nps.gov/applications/release/Detail.cfm?ID=447

Health and Air Quality Impacts of Bio-Based Fuels and Lubes in Small Engines
Abstract: Covers concerns and problems with small engines and their emissions, and impacts of bio-based fuels and new technology. Compares two- and four-stroke engines and offers potential future goals.
Source: Montana Department of Environmental Quality
URL: http://deq.mt.gov/Cleansnowmobile/solutions/challenge/defaul
t.mcpx

How Two-Stroke Engines Work
Abstract: Explains how two-stroke engines operate and their advantages and disadvantages.
Source: How Stuff Works
URL: http://www.howstuffworks.com/two-stroke.htm

Judge OKs Park Snowmobiling
Abstract: Federal Judge overturns snowmobile ban at the Yellowstone and Grand Teton national parks.
Source: CBS News
URL: http://www.cbsnews.com/stories/2003/12/18/national/main58931
3.shtml

Laboratory Testing of Snowmobile Emissions [PDF]
Abstract: Report of snowmobile emissions testing program.
Source: Montana Department of Environmental Quality
URL: http://deq.mt.gov/CleanSnowmobile/publications/Reports/pdf/L
ab_Testing_of_Snowmobile_Emissions-(July%202002).pdf

Nonroad Recreational Vehicle Technologies and Costs [PDF]
Abstract: Assesses economic implications of adopting emissions controls on currently unregulated nonroad recreational vehicles.
Source: EPA
URL: http://www.epa.gov/otaq/regs/nonroad/proposal/r01044.pdf

Over-Snow Vehicle Sound Level Measurements [PDF]
Abstract: This report was prepared as part of Montana's participation in the process of completing the Supplemental Enviromental Impact Statement on Winter Use Plans for the Yellowstone/Teton area, and describes results of noise monitoring.
Source: Montana Department of Environmental Quality
URL: http://deq.mt.gov/cleansnowmobile/publications/pdf/SnowVehSo
und.pdf

Proposal for Cleaner Recreational Vehicles
Abstract: Information on rule-making process.
Source: EPA
URL: http://www.epa.gov/otaq/recveh.htm#cleanrec

Real-time Remote Sensing of Snowmobiles Emissions at Yellowstone National Park: An Oxygenated Fuel Study
Abstract: Documentation of measurement of snowmobile emissions in Yellowstone National Park.
Source: Western Regional Biomass Energy Program
URL: http://pubs.acs.org/doi/abs/10.1021/es010513l

Reduction in Emissions and Noise from a 500 cc Snowmobile
Abstract: Site to purchase copy of technical snowmobile paper.
Source: Society of Automotive Engineers
URL: http://www.sae.org/servlets/productDetail?PROD_TYP=PAPER&PRO
D_CD=2000-01-2575

Reformulated Gasoline and Your Snowmobile
Abstract: How to use reformulated gasoline to reduce pollution from snowmobiles.
Source: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
URL: http://epa.gov/reg5oair/mobile/snowmo.html

SAE Clean Snowmobile Challenge 2001 - Summary and Results
Abstract: Articulation of goals and successes of engineering competition.
Source: Montana Department of Environmental Quality
URL: http://www.sae.org/technical/papers/2001-01-3652

SAE International Clean Snowmobile Challenge
Abstract: Site to purchase details on an entry in the SAE Clean Snowmobile Challenge 2005.
Source: Society of Automotive Engineers
URL: http://students.sae.org/competitions/snow/

SAE Publications
Abstract: Links to publications and SAE technical papers.
Source: SAE International
URL: http://www.sae.org/servlets/techtrack?PROD_TYP=PAPER

Snowpack Chemistry as an Indicator of Pollutant Emission Levels from Motorized Winter Vehicles in Yellowstone National Park
Abstract: Research abstract performed by U.S. Geological Survey.
Source: U.S. Geological Survey
URL: http://snobear.colorado.edu/WSC/WSCref/1997.html#george

Solutions: Oxygenated Fuels
Abstract: Easy to understand summary of studies documenting the reduction of snowmobile pollution through the use of ten percent ethanol blended fuel.
Source: Department of Environmental Quality
URL: http://deq.mt.gov/cleansnowmobile/Solutions/Fuels/oxygenated
.mcpx

The Snowmobile Dilemma, or, Who Spilled What in the Regrigerator vs. Who's Going to Clean It Up? [PDF]
Abstract: Experience with snowmobile pollution in West Yellowstone, Montana
Source: Department of Environmental Quality
URL: http://deq.mt.gov/CleanSnowmobile/publications/Reports/pdf/T
heSnowmobileDilemma.pdf

Two-Stroke Engine Principles
Abstract: References information on how two-stroke engines work.
Source: Montana Department of Environmental Quality
URL: http://deq.mt.gov/cleansnowmobile/Solutions/Engine/default.m
cpx

U.S. District Court Issues Order on Winter Use in Yellowstone and Grand Teton National Parks and the John D, Rockefeller, Jr. Memorial Parkway
Abstract: Judge Emmet Sullivan of the U.S. District Court in Washington, D.C. issued an order to set aside a recent National Park Service (NPS) winter use plan and rule that allowed for limited snowmobile use in Yellowstone and Grand Teton National Parks and the John D. Rockefeller, Jr., Memorial Parkway. The November 18, 2002, regulation is in effect. That rule phases out snowmobile use in the three parks in favor of multi-passenger snowcoaches.
Source: National Park Service
URL: http://home.nps.gov/applications/release/Detail.cfm?ID=448

Winter Use Planning in Yellowstone
Abstract: The National Park Service has reopened the comment period on a proposed rule for winter use. The proposed rule would replace the 2004 rule reinstated last fall by the U.S. District Court for the District of Wyoming, which governed snowmobile and snowcoach access in the parks for the 2008-2009 winter season.
Source: National Parks Service
URL: http://www.nps.gov/yell/planyourvisit/winteruse.htm


- Fact sheet/checklist -    Top of Page

Frequently Asked Questions on Clean Snowmobiling
Abstract: Controversies about snowmobile emissions and access to U.S. National Parks and other public lands have prompted studies, rulings, lawsuits, and technological innovations aimed at producing cleaner, quieter snowmobiles. This page answers common questions on these issues.
Source: Montana Department of Environmental Quality
URL: http://deq.mt.gov/CleanSnowmobile/default.mcpx

Maintenance Tips To Ensure Your Snowmobile Runs Cleaner & Quieter
Abstract: A list of maintenance tips to ensure that snowmobiles run cleaner and more efficiently.
Source: International Snowmobile Manufacturers Association
URL: http://www.snowmobile-ed.com/ia/handbook/tread_lightly.htm

Two Stroke and Four Stroke Engines
Abstract: Describes the differences between these two types of motors.
Source:
URL: http://www.holdfastmac.com.au/howengines.html


- Manual/handbook/curriculum -    Top of Page

Solutions: Engine Technologies
Abstract: An overview of various engine types, their strengths and weaknesses.
Source: Montana Department of Environmental Quality
URL: http://deq.mt.gov/CleanSnowmobile/solutions/engine/


- Web site -    Top of Page

American Council of Snowmobile Associations (ACSA)
Abstract: The American Council of Snowmobile Associations (ACSA) is a national organization that was formed to unite the snowmobile community.
Source: American Council of Snowmobile Associations
URL: http://www.snowmobilers.org/

Biofuels for Sustainable Transportation [PDF]
Abstract: Information on alternative-fuel systems.
Source: U.S. Department of Energy's National Biofuels Program
URL: http://www.nrel.gov/docs/fy00osti/25876.pdf

Clean Snowmobile Facts
Abstract: Presents objective and balanced information about all aspects of the debate over snowmobile emissions and access to national parks and other public lands.
Source: Montana Department of Environmental Quality
URL: http://deq.mt.gov/CleanSnowmobile/

Clean Snowmobile Publications
Abstract: This website provides a list of publications and links for information about snowmobiles.
Source: Montana Department of Environmental Quality
URL: http://deq.state.mt.us/CleanSnowmobile/publications/

International Snowmobile Manufacturers Association (ISMA)
Abstract: The International Snowmobile Manufacturers Association (ISMA) is an organization representing the four snowmobile manufacturers. We coordinate committees within the industry to handle concerns such as snowmobile safety, the promotion of the life-style activity of snowmobiling, keeping accurate statistics, reporting the growth of the industry and the positive economic impact the life-style activity has throughout the world.
Source: International Snowmobile Manufacturers Association
URL: http://www.snowmobile.org/

Recreational Vehicles
Abstract: Advance notice of proposed ruelmaking on snowmobile emissions.
Source: EPA Office of Transportation and Air Quality
URL: http://www.epa.gov/otaq/recveh.htm

SAE Clean Snowmobile Challenge
Abstract: Information, results, and press releases on a collegiate design competition that challenges engineering students to design a cleaner and quieter snowmobile.
Source: Society of Automotive Engineers
URL: http://www.sae.org/students/snow.htm

Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE)
Abstract: A membership organization representing engineers of mobility systems in 97 countries and serving as a resource for technical information and expertise used in designing, building, maintaining, and operating self-propelled vehicles for use on land, sea, air or space.
Source: The Society of Automotive Engineers
URL: http://www.sae.org/servlets/index

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